2019 Archive

April 1st 2019 “The very, very early universe”. Prof David Wands

The present-day expansion of our universe points towards a singular origin, 14 billion years ago, in a Hot Big Bang. This conclusion seems inescapable within the context of Einstein’s classical theory of general relativity and the matter and radiation we observe around us. But the detailed structure of our Universe, revealed in the largest astronomical surveys currently underway, implies a pattern of primordial density fluctuations that may require a quantum origin soon after or, perhaps, even before the Big Bang. I will discuss how cosmologists use current observations to infer anything about the very early universe, and what we think we know about fundamental physics and the Big Bang.

I am Professor of Cosmology at the University of Portsmouth and Director of the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation. I studied at the University of Cambridge and did my PhD at Sussex, before joining the University of Portsmouth in 1996. My research focuses on the physics of he very early universe, a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, and the origin of cosmic structure. I have published over 150 papers and given scientific talks on five continents.

March 4th “What is a quantum internet?” Daryus Chandra

As we shrink the size of transistors further and further, the inevitable quantum phenomenon on nano-scale level starts to prevail. In quantum regime, the general rules of thumb for developing classical computers that we currently have will no longer valid. However, the weird and often-strange quantum properties can be exploited to build quantum computers, which exhibit a superpower computing capability. While such quantum computers may impose the threat of jeopardizing most of our encryption systems, the quantum mechanical properties also offer the wonderful solution for establishing an absolute-secure and unbreachable quantum communication system, even with the advent of quantum computers. With the emerge of quantum technologies, such as quantum computers and quantum communications, one may ask a judicious question, “Can we build the so-called ‘Quantum Internet?'” In this talk, we will try to explore this problem by demystifying the concept of quantum computation and quantum communication accompanied by the recent research progress in this area. Finally, you may wonder if the answer to the question is in the superposition between ‘yes’ and ‘no’.

Daryus Chandra received his bachelor of engineering (B.Eng.) and master of engineering (M.Eng.) degree in Electronics Engineering from a five-year integrated bachelor-master programme, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. After that, he spent one year serving as a Research and Teaching Assistant at the same institution. Since September 2015, he joined the Next Generation Wireless Research Group, University of Southampton for pursuing PhD degree. His research interests revolve around quantum information, quantum communication, and quantum error-correction codes. More specifically, the implementation of the quantum error-correction codes for maintaining the reliability of quantum computation and quantum communication system for the near-future quantum computers and quantum internet. Currently, he is also a course instructor managed by Lifelong Learning Department, University of Southampton, delivering an introduction course of quantum computation and communication to public audiences.

Mon Feb 4th  2019 “The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe” Dr Dan Whalen

Most massive galaxies in the universe today harbor supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with masses from a few million to tens of billions of solar masses.  But very bright quasars powered by billion solar mass BHs have now been discovered at redshift z ~ 7, or just 775 million years after the Big Bang.  They pose serious challenges to current theories of cosmological structure formation because it is not known how BHs this massive appeared by such early epochs.  I will discuss the possible origins of the first quasars and present new supercomputer simulations of how they could form in the first billion years of the universe.

Dan’s biography: PhD University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign 2006 Research Fellow, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) 2006 – 2009 McWilliams Fellow in Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University 2009 – 2012 Research Scientist, LANL 2012 – 2014 Deputy Group Leader, Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Univ of Heidelberg 2014 – 2016 Senior Lecturer, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth 2016 On

 

Mon 7th Jan 2019. “Wireless Communications: Towards a Connected World of People and Things.” K. Satyanarayana

Wireless communication has evolved from pigeon-post to paging, voice calls, text messages, video calls – and now Internet everywhere. It has become the ubiquitous means of socializing, doing business and of entertainment. There are around 5 billion mobile phones in use through which we transmit around 60 terabytes of data every month. And yet, this is just the beginning – the future is even more exciting as we are moving from the internet-of-things to holographic video calls, which can conjure up the image of a person right in the room when we talk to them. However, one of the key issues of this technology, whether we have the capacity to accommodate all these users at a high quality-of-service. An obvious solution to circumvent this problem is to increase the bandwidth used. But we only have a limited bandwidth.

In this talk, I shall shed light on how to address this problem.

Satyanarayana (www.satyanarayana.xyz) received his B. Tech. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India, in 2014. During Jul’14-Aug’15, he worked as a research assistant at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Currently, Satya is a research scholar in Wireless Communications at the University of Southampton in liaison with InterDigital Europe, London, UK. His research interests include millimeter wave communications, hybrid beamforming, with an emphasis on transceiver algorithms for wireless communication systems and multi-functional MIMO. He has over a dozen publications and a patent.